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Deployments

A deployment is a supervisor for pods, giving you fine-grained control over how and when a new pod version is rolled out as well as rolled back to a previous state.  
Let's create a deployment called sise-deploy that produces two replicas of a pod as well as a replica set:
kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/main/specs/deployments/d09.yaml

You can have a look at the deployment, as well as the the replica set and the pods the deployment looks using the get subcommand (multiple resource types may be specified in a single call):

kubectl get pod,replicaset,deployment

The result is separated by resource type and reflects all of the resources created by the deployment:

NAME                               READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/sise-deploy-747848cd97-d2hkf   1/1     Running   0          73s
pod/sise-deploy-747848cd97-klr7z   1/1     Running   0          73s

NAME                                     DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
replicaset.apps/sise-deploy-747848cd97   2         2         2       74s

NAME                          READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
deployment.apps/sise-deploy   2/2     2            2           74s
Note the naming of the pods and replica set, derived from the deployment name.

 

At this point in time the "sise" containers running in the pods are configured to return the version 0.9. Let's verify this from within the cluster using curl:
Note: You'll need to replace $POD_NAME with the generated name of one of your pods.
kubectl exec sise-deploy-747848cd97-d2hkf -t -- curl -s 127.0.0.1:9876/info

The output reflects the current version of the deployed application:

{"host": "127.0.0.1:9876", "version": "0.9", "from": "127.0.0.1"}
Let's now see what happens if we change that version to 1.0 in an updated deployment:
kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift-evangelists/kbe/main/specs/deployments/d10.yaml

Note that you could have used kubectl edit deploy/sise-deploy instead to achieve the same by manually editing the deployment.  

Running the kubectl get pods command shows the rollout of two new pods with the updated version 1.0 as well as the two old pods with version 0.9 being terminated:
NAME                           READY   STATUS        RESTARTS   AGE
sise-deploy-67fd84bd5c-g2kkw   1/1     Running       0          35s
sise-deploy-67fd84bd5c-s6bkv   1/1     Running       0          32s
sise-deploy-747848cd97-d2hkf   1/1     Terminating   0          6m47s
sise-deploy-747848cd97-klr7z   0/1     Terminating   0          6m47s

Additionally, a new replica set is created as well:

NAME                     DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
sise-deploy-67fd84bd5c   2         2         2       51s
sise-deploy-747848cd97   0         0         0       7m3s

Note that during the deployment you can check the progress using kubectl rollout status deploy/sise-deploy.

To verify that if the new 1.0 version is really available, we execute from within the cluster (again using kubectl get pods get the name of one of the pods):

kubectl exec sise-deploy-67fd84bd5c-g2kkw -t -- curl -s 127.0.0.1:9876/info

The resulting output reflects the new version of the container image:

{"host": "127.0.0.1:9876", "version": "1.0", "from": "127.0.0.1"}

A history of all deployments is available via the rollout history subcommand:

kubectl rollout history deploy/sise-deploy

If there are problems in the deployment Kubernetes will automatically roll back to the previous version, however you can also explicitly roll back to a specific revision, as in our case to revision 1 (the original pod version):

kubectl rollout undo deploy/sise-deploy --to-revision=1

At this point in time we're back at where we started, with two new pods again serving version 0.9, which can be verified with the curl command from above:

{"host": "127.0.0.1:9876", "version": "0.9", "from": "127.0.0.1"}
Finally, to clean up, we remove the deployment. Kubernetes will delete any child resources (in this case, the replica sets and pods):
kubectl delete deploy sise-deploy
See also the documentation for more options on deployments and when they are triggered.